Thursday 24 May 2018

How to write a story

Story Writing

What is a story?
A story is a series of events, incidents and experience involving characters and action.

Elements of a story
1.     Setting
description or mention of time, place, occasion, etc. – what where and when
2.     Plot
Main idea, concept or incident around which whole story revolves or develops and action takes place around it 
3.     Characters
main characters/people involved in in the action/story, speaking their dialogues
4.     Interest/surprise
invoking/arousing interest of audience through some twists or unlikely turns or unexpected incidents/act/event, including nail biting moments 
5.     Theme
The notion/theory/thought the author wants to highlight/convey through the story, characters and dialogues


Proper beginning of story should reveal the place, time, scene and main characters which the story is all about, e.g. once upon a time there was a kind and just king in the kingdom of Rajgarh.
2.     ACTION
Interesting happening or incident should take place as story advances. Some or other thing should happen at each step.
Occurrence of some problem/hindrance/unlikely incident should happen as the story reaches its middle. Hindrance may be natural, social or psychological.
4.     CLIMAX
Problem becomes graver or intense and nail biting moment should arise as the action reaches its peak and anything could happen, next. The readers must think, “now what”?
The action falls down and the resolution of problem begins by appearance of someone/some happening. Something happens which is contrary to climax and the story becomes even more interesting.
The intricate problem which reaches at its climax gets solved and everything settles for a Happy Ending.

Note : Every story may not have a happy ending, necessarily. It may have a tragic, unexpected or unconventional ending.

Language and Style

1.     An interesting title should be written at the top in the centre and it should be underlined.
2.     You must start your story with the beginning given in the question/task.
3.     Story should be narrated in the first or third person of pronoun, e.g. I or he.
4.     Scenes and characters should be described.
5.     Dialogues must be given to the characters.

Example of a Story

Q. Once, there was a boy in a village. His name was Abdul. He lived with his mother in a small hut. One day, the boy headed for the city to sell the bundle of his logs as it was his livelihood ………. Complete the story in about 200-250 words.

A Stranger

Once, there was a boy in a village. His name was Abdul. He lived with his mother in a small hut. One day, the boy headed for the city to sell the bundle of his logs as it was his livelihood ………. Abdul sold all his logs by evening and he was very happy to earn good amount of money. 

While he was going back, it started raining heavily. Now, he was worried to think that his notes may get wet. Next moment, he saw a small house at a distance. He thought of getting into that house but was scared. Then, he realised that somebody tapped on his shoulder. “You will get wet, here,” said the man in his forties, “come with me, I live nearby.” As they both started for his home in hurry, Abdul saw a stranger coming towards them. However, he did not give much attention to him. 

They reached the house and as he was about to sit on a cot, he saw a knife in the man’s hand. Before he could speak anything, the man stared at him with wild eyes and roared, “Give me the money.” “I am very poor and my mother would be waiting for me, please leave me,” Abdul uttered in a feeble voice. The man clutched his shirt took his money forcibly. Abdul fell at his feet and said, “I can’t go to my mother empty handed, please give my money back.” Therefore, he decided to kill Abdul. As he was going to stab him with his knife, the stranger appeared from nowhere like a messiah and held his hand. After struggling for some time, the stranger got control over him and snatched his knife. He forced the man to give money back to Abdul. 

While he was thinking what happened and how it happened, he reached his home with his mother waiting for him with tears in her eyes.

Friday 18 May 2018

How to write letter for placing order

Letter for placing order

Ø It is a written as business communication
Ø It may be written for official / business / government / individual purpose
Ø It follows the format and language of formal letter


Sender’s address (3-4 lines)
Leave a line
Leave a line
Receiver’s address (3-4 lines)
Leave a line
Salutation (Sir/Ma’am)
Subject (topic in brief)
Content       1 Paragraph – reference to advertisement, previous communication, catalogue or quotation, place the order
2 Paragraph – details of product (s), type, brand, quantity/number, colour, size, style or code, in form of table of items
3 Paragraph – discuss the quality, discount, delivery mode/date, payment mode (COD/DD)
4 Paragraph – complimentary close (Thank you), enclosures (if any)
Subscription (Yours faithfully/sincerely)
Writer’s Name/ABC
Designation (if any)
Contact no.

Language Particulars

Ø Use Simple Present / Present Continuous Tense mainly.
Ø Use Passive Voice where it is required.
Ø Be specific and precise about the order.
Ø Give details and clarity about items’ name, code, style, size, colour, quantity, etc.
Ø Use short and uncomplicated sentences to avoid ambiguity/confusion.
Ø There should be no verbiage.
Ø Language should be formal, polite and business like.

Video on The Letter of Complaint

Sample Letter

Q. As the Manager of Silver Line Restaurant, Ashok Nagar, New Delhi write a letter to the Sales Manager, Prakash Electronics, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, for placing an order for some electrical appliances.

B-109, Phase I
Silver Line Restaurant
Ashok Nagar
New Delhi

15 May 2018

The Sales Manager
Prakash Electronics
Vasant Kunj
New Delhi

Subject :  Placement of order for electrical items
This is with reference to your quotation dated 12 May 2018 that we place an order for the following electrical appliances.

S. No.
Items’ name
Item code
No. of items
LED Bulbs

We are placing this order based on the quotation sent by your centre. We are assured that all the items would be of best quality and in perfect condition. We hope that packaging cost is included in the price mentioned. In case of damage during delivery it would be borne by you.
Needless to say, 15% discount would be given as specified in your quotation letter. Payment will be made by cash on delivery. I would like to make a special mention that the items should reach by 20 May 2018.
Thank you.

Yours faithfully
Manager, Silver Line Restaurant

Wednesday 9 May 2018

How to write a letter of complaint

Letter of Complaint (Formal letter)

Types according to purpose and receiver :

1.     Complaint about defective purchase/service as an Individual
2.     Complaint about problem as a group/society
3.     Complaint about a defective supply or service to an official 


Sender’s address
Leave a line
Date (8 March 2018)
Leave a line
Receiver’s address
Leave a line
Subject (topic in brief)
Salutation (Sir/Ma’am)
Content       1 Paragraph – state the complaint and transaction, date of purchase, brand/price, statement of complaint about defective service or problem
2 Paragraph – describe item and its defects in detail, dissatisfaction, warranty period, 3 - 4 points about detailed complaint
                   3 Paragraph – request for repair, service or replacement or money back, measure to control the problem
                   4 Paragraph – complimentary close, attachments
Subscription (Yours faithfully/sincerely)
Writer’s Name/ABC
Designation (if required)


Points to take care (dos and don’ts) :

1.     Use formal language and make polite request
2.     The complaint should not be aggressive, insulting or rude
3.     Don’t threaten to go to police or court in the first letter.
4.     Information should be detailed and specific.
5.     There should be subsequent difference between the date of purchase and that of complaint.
6.     Don’t use derogatory words or defamatory language.

Subscription :

Yours faithfully if the salutation is Sir/Ma’am or Dear sir/ma’am
Yours sincerely if salutation is Dear Mr. Kapoor/Ms. Shalini
Note that ‘Yours truly’ is used in place of Yours faithfully by users of American English.

Marking Scheme : (it may vary as per the board/pattern/blue print)
                   Format – 1 mark
                   Content – 4 marks
                   Expression – 2 marks ( fluency – 1 m.  & Organisation of ideas – 1 )
                   Accuracy - 1 mark (errors related to spelling, grammar & vocabulary)
                   Total –  8 marks

Sample Letters

Q1. You are the librarian at Jesus and Mary School, Agra. You had placed an order for 80 copies of ‘English Literature Reader’ text books for class X from Prakash Books, New Market, Agra. You found that the pages in some of the books are missing and print is also overlapping. Write a letter of complaint to the manager for refund or replacement. (120-150 words)

Jesus and Mary School
ABC Road

20 January 2018

The Manager
Prakash Books
New Market
Agra, U.P.

Subject – Complaint about defective books

With reference to purchase of English Literature Reader text books against Invoice no. 1871 dated 18 January 2018, I would like to draw your kind attention to the fact that print quality of some books is unsatisfactory and some pages are also missing in some books.

I placed an order for 80 copies of ‘English Literature Reader’ for class X on 16 January 2018 and received delivery of the same on 18 January 2018. After browsing through the brooks we found that pages 33-36 and 97-100 are missing in six of the books. That is not all, on pages 112-114 and 160-164 the print is overlapping. Furthermore, the print quality of four books is very poor. It would be highly inconvenient to the students to read the chapters.

Therefore, I request you to kindly look into the matter and reconsider the request of replacement of those ten books with faulty print and missing pages or refund the amount as soon as possible.

I look forward to the subsequent action at your end to resolve the matter. Your assistance is highly appreciated. A copy of invoice is attached with the letter.
Thank you.

Yours faithfully
Librarian, St. Mary and Jesus School

Q2. You are Aparna/Arpit, a resident of 33, Station Road Jila Colony, Nagpur. You bought a refrigerator from Ganesh Electronics and Electricals, Gandhi Marg, Nagpur. Write a letter of complaint to the Manager about the defects in the product and asking for immediate repair or replacement. (120-150 words)

33, Station Road
Jila Colony

18 March 2018

The Manager
Ganesh Electronics and Electricals
Gandhi Marg

Subject : Complaint about defective refrigerator

With reference to the refrigerator I purchased from your shop against the Invoice no. 123 dated 8 March 2018, it is very unfortunate to inform that the refrigerator has stopped working.

I would like to draw your attention to a Godrej refrigerator, model number XXX012 that was bought by me from your shop on 8 March 2018. It worked well for three days but after that it started producing irritating noise and the sidewalls started getting heated up. The freezing compartment stopped working suddenly the very next day. It was producing loud noise with vibrations. On fifth day it stopped working completely.

Therefore, I request you to provide appropriate service and resolve the matter. I would appreciate if you get the refrigerator checked thoroughly by a qualified and trained technician promptly. If the problem cannot be solved, you are requested to get it replaced or refund the money.

I look forward to a prompt action at your end and satisfactory settlement of the matter. The product covers five years warranty. The invoice and warranty card are attached with the letter.
Thank you.
Attachments :
1. Invoice
2. Warranty Card

Yours faithfully
Aparna/Arpit (write any one name)

Q3. You read an article ‘An Old Couple Murdered in Delhi’ in a leading newspaper. You decide to write a letter to the Commissioner of police complaining against the rising rate of crime against the old and helpless people. Include measures to be taken to improve the security of the people. You are Manu/ Mahesh of A-9/10 9, Phase-I, Ashok Vihar, New Delhi.

A-9/109, Phase-I
Ashok Vihar
New Delhi

12 April 2018

The Commissioner of Police
Police Head Quarters
New Delhi 1100XX

Subject – Increasing crime against the old and aged

These days the rate of crime against the elderly and helpless people is touching skies. It is very disappointing to know that the aged people in our society do not feel safe even in the presence of such efficient and active police. The incident of the murder of the happy silver jubilee is nothing but the lack of vigilance and alertness of the police department.

The old cannot always defend themselves and need support of our police. Not only the old, other weaker sections like women and children are also facing the threats of rape, murder, chain snatching, abduction, child abuse, etc.  The old in our society, who wish to spend a peaceful and respectable life after serving the nation for two quarters of their life, don’t even dare to come out of their houses in evening. They are scared that they might be robbed or murdered.

Our senior citizens definitely deserve sincere efforts on our part in this respect. The police department must take actions as well as precautionary measures for their safety. The culprits should be punished severely. The patrolling should be increased in areas like parks, playgrounds, residential areas and old age homes. CCTV cameras must be put at every possible length and must be working properly.

Every citizen especially the old should feel safe and criminals should think hundred times before committing any crime.
Thank you

Yours faithfully

Tuesday 8 May 2018

How to write a Notice

Notice Writing for Classes 6-12

What is Notice?

Notice is an important piece of information which is meant for a larger group. It should be as brief as possible and only important information should be added in the notice.

Format of Notice

Name of the Organization/Institute/Group
Leave a line
Word ‘NOTICE’ ( in capital letters )
Date ( 03 March 2018 )
Heading / Topic
Leave a line

CONTENT (50 words)
(Body of notice)

Leave a line
Name / ABC
Designation / post

Video on report writing

Key points to remember –
1.     Language should be formal and polite.
2.     Passive Voice should be used as much as possible
3.     Indirect language should be used. Statements should not be written in “…….”
4.     You should not use first or second person of pronoun, ( I, we you etc.) instead you should use third person of pronoun (he, they etc.)
5.     Notice should be short, compact and precise.
6.     There should be substantial difference between the date of issuing notice and the date of event / last date of submission.
7.       Strictly adhere to the word limit. ( 50 words )
8.     Put the notice in a box.
9.     Marking Scheme –          Format – 1
                                         Content – 2
                                         Expression - 1 (Fluency – ½  & Accuracy – ½ )
                                         Total      4 marks

How to write the content for a notice

Proper beginning – This is to inform all the members/students/residents
What – event / purpose
When – time / date
Where – place
From whom – specific group / people
What to do – instructions
Deadline / last date
                      Date               (Specify separately in case the information
      Time               of any event, programme 
      Place              competition is to be given)
Proper ending – For further details kindly contact the undersigned.

Sample Notices

Q. You are Prakash Mehta, the President of Red Cross Blood Bank Society, New Delhi. Write a notice in not more than 50 words giving the details of blood donation camp in your city and urging the people to donate blood give their contribution for the good cause.

                   Red Cross Blood Bank Society, New Delhi

                23 April 2018
          Blood Donation Camp

                This is to inform that a Blood Donation Camp is organised to save the lives who die due to the want of blood. All are requested to come in large number and donate blood. Camp details are as under :
Dates : 26-28 April 2018
Time : 9 a.m. - 5 p.m.
           Place : Shalimar Bagh, New Delhi              
                Prakash Mehta
                President, Red Cross Society Blood Bank
 Contact - 9871XXXXXX               

Q. You are Surendra Singh, President of Alok Vihar Society RWA, Noida. Draft a notice informing the residents about cleaning of water tank and apologising for withholding water supply. Invent all the necessary details and put the notice in box.

                      Alok Vihar Society, Noida

                27 May 2018
                    Cleaning of Water Tank

                This is to inform that water tank of the society is going to be cleaned on 29 May 2018 and water supply will be withheld for twelve hours.  All the residents are requested to store water sufficient for their needs. Inconvenience is regretted. For further details contact RWA office.

                Surendra Singh
                President, RWA, Alok Vihar Society