Wednesday 26 August 2020

Past Perfect Tense


The word ‘tense’ is derived from Latin word ‘tempus’ and it means time. Basically tense conveys the time of action.

Tenses are mainly divided into parts – Present, Past and Future. They are further subdivided into three categories – Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous. Let’s learn Past Tense.


PAST PERFECT TENSE is generally used to describe an action completed at certain moment in past or earlier.

Basic Structure of Sentence

Basic structure of a sentence in this tense is –

Subject          +         Had    +         V3 (third form of verb )   +         Object

Shaan            +          Had    +               written                      +          the letter.   


Past Perfect Tense is used to describe/show –

1. An action that was completed before sometime in past :

For example :

1. By that time my friends had gone. (action completed before the time being reported)

2. We had come back by 11:30 pm.

3. They had not made up their mind by then.

4. All students had left by then. (completed in past)

2. An action or event happened earlier than some other event in past:

For example :

1. I had already done the work when my teacher asked me to show. (action happened earlier other event)

2. I had known him to be generous but it was my mistake.

3.  A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now:

For example :

1. I had gone there earlier, too. (repeated action in past)

2. She had been there quite often before she got married.


4. Actions completed before some other event (in sequence of simple past) 

For example :

1. The patient had died when the doctor arrived. (in sequence of simple past)

2. I had switched of the T.V. before I went to sleep.

5. for a condition, or a conditional situation :

For example :

1.If she had worked hard, she would have succeeded. (conditional sentence)

2. If the road had been wider, many accidents could have been averted.


Note : We should never use Past Perfect Tense with adverbs of past time (yesterday, last year, etc.)

Verb form used in the Past Perfect Tense–

The past perfect form of any verb is composed of two elements:

1. Past form of auxiliary / helping verb ‘have’ – had (both singular and plural)

2. Verb's third form (V3) – been, taught, learnt, played, sang, slept, gone, etc.

Past form of auxiliary ‘have’ - had

Third form of verb (V3)

He had

slept by the time his friends rang him up.

They had

played the match in the morning.

She had

been there in her childhood.

I had

prepared for class test before it was announced.

They had

left for Jaipur when we reached their place.



Video on Integrated Grammar Practice

  More Examples :

1. They had left the city by that time.

2. They hadn’t submitted their quotation by December last year.

3. The thief had escaped before the police arrived.

4. The train had left by the time we reached the station.

5. I had donated my watch to Mona when you asked for it.

6. When the teacher entered, the students had submitted the test.

7. By the time my friend came, I had slept.

8. The thief had escaped when the police arrived.

Exercise I

I _______________ (put) the letter in a book and ____________ (go) out to play. Next day, When I tried to find it. It took me whole day to get it because I __________ (forget) where I had kept it. Just when I _____________ (leave) all hopes, it got it inside the book exactly where I ___________ (keep) it. I was so thrilled to get it.

Answers :

1.     Had put   2. gone   3. Had forgot   4. Had left   5. Had kept      


Exercise II

Once, I was meeting my patients. One of my patients who was an old man ____________ (tell) me that he  ___________  (slip) in his bathroom that morning. I ___________ (examine) him thoroughly and found out that he _________ (fracture) his leg. I also ________ (feel) that the old man ________ (be) in great pain. I felt respectful for his courage and __________ (provide) him due treatment. We became friends after he __________ (get) discharged from my surgery.


Answers :

1. told                         2. Had slipped         3.  examined            4. Had fractured    

5. Felt                          6.  Had been           7.  provided              8. Had got 

Past Tense

Thursday 20 August 2020

In the Kingdom of Fools

In the Kingdom of Fools

By A. K. Ramanujam

Analysis :

·       The chapter ‘In the Kingdom of Fools’ is written in Kannada language by A. K. Ramanujam who has compiled many other folk tales in his book ‘Folk Tales from India’. 

·       ‘In the kingdom of fools’ is an interesting and humorous story about a kingdom run by a foolish king and his stupid ministers.

·       This story has been translated and published in English as well as many Indian regional languages.

·       The story highlights that the order set by nature and natural laws need to be followed. It propounds that day is meant for work while night is meant for rest and sleep.

·       The foolish king and his minister who tried to change the laws of nature were punished by the destiny. Finally, the nature’s law was restored by a wise Guru and his disciple.

Summary / Synopsis :

     ·       In the kingdom of fools no one was allowed to work in day and sleep at night. Every one including the smallest animals used to sleep in day and carry out their business only after it is dark. One more strange rule was followed in the kingdom that everything cost same – one duddu.

·       Once, a Guru and his disciple visited the town and were surprised to notice strange rules of the kingdom. The Guru told his disciple that he should not stay in the city as it was the kingdom of fools. The rules were strange and they should not trust anyone as the foolish king and ministers may do anything to anyone.

·       One day a thief broke into a merchant's house but wall of his house being weak fell on thief and killed him. the thief's brother appealed to the king to punish the merchant for building a weak wall that killed his brother. The merchant was called but he blamed the bricklayer for building a weak wall. The bricklayer accused a dancing girl for distracting him as she was walking up and down the street again and again and jingling her anklets. The dancing girl was called but she blamed a goldsmith who delayed her order and called her again and again to collect her jewellery. The goldsmith accused a rich merchant who gave an order of jewellery for wedding and was impatient that's why he could not finish dancing girl's jewellery in time. Finally the rich merchant was declared to be the real culprit but he happened to be the dead father of the merchant who was called first in king's court.

·       A new stake was made for the execution. When the merchant was brought for execution, he was found to be too thin to fit the stake. The messengers were sent to find a fat man to fit the stake and they caught the disciple who became fat eating cheap food for few months.

·       The disciple was brought for execution by the servants. That time he remembered his guru’s words and called his guru for help. The guru saw this in his vision and came for his help.

·       The Guru made a story and told the king that his stake is the stake of the god of justice as it is new, that’s why whoever dies first on the stake will be reborn as the next king of the kingdom and who dies next would be reborn as the future minister of the kingdom. Guru and his disciple started fighting and demanded to be executed first.

·       With the wish to become king and minister in their next birth, the king and the minister got themselves executed on the stake and the Guru and his disciple were made king and minister by the people of the kingdom. After that there too, the laws of the world were followed.



The chapter clearly highlights that nature’s rules and laws of the world need to be followed. Unlike the kingdom of fools day is meant for work and night is meant for rest. Price of a thing needs to be decided according to its value. The story teaches us not to be greedy. The disciple got into trouble due to his greed for cheap food. 

Important Question Answers

Q1. How many people were tried in the king’s court and for what reason?.

Ans. First of all, the merchant was called in the king’s court because his wall was very weak and fell on the thief killing him on the spot. But, the merchant blamed the bricklayer because he built a weak wall and should be punished for not doing his work properly.

The bricklayer who has become old, accused a dancing girl for distracting him as she was walking up and down the street again and again and jingling her anklets. Due to this he could not keep his mind and his eyes on work.

The dancing girl was called but she blamed a goldsmith who delayed making her jewellery and called her again and again to collect her order.

Finally, the goldsmith was called and he accused a rich merchant who gave an order of jewellery for wedding and was impatient and insisted to receive his order of jewellery on time. That's why he could not finish the dancing girl's jewellery in time.

Finally the same merchant who was called the very first time, was called again because that rich merchant happened to be his father who had been dead.

Thursday 13 August 2020

Amanda by Robin Klein


                                                                  By Robin Klein



·        ‘Amanda’ is a short poem composed by Robin Klein, an Australian author and poet who is better known for her works for children and ‘young adults’.

·        It is a simple and short poem with a deeper meaning and wider perspective. It discusses adolescent behaviour and its complexities namely daydreaming, escapism, loneliness and gloominess in this age.

·        This poem expresses the state of a teenage girl’s mind who is constantly instructed about DOs and DON’Ts by her mother.

     The whole poem is divided in seven stanzas of three lines each. Stanzas 2, 4 and 6 are put in parenthesis / brackets. It signifies that the reactions, emotions and dreams of Amanda are unexpressed and closed in her heart.

·        The poet conveys the message primarily for the parents and elders advising them to treat the children lovingly and win their hearts instead of giving them orders.

·      Tone of the poem is sarcastic and critical as the poet conveys that the children have their individuality and self respect which should not be hurt in any case.


Video on The Trees

Summary / Synopsis

·        The girl named Amanda gets irritated and hurt with constant nagging by her mother who keeps scolding her and correcting her mistakes. Her mother always gives her instructions to sit straight and not to drop her shoulders. She is reminded constantly not to bite her nails.

·        The little girl Amanda keeps dreaming about freedom for herself and living life in the open, away from her home. Her mother constantly scolds her for sitting in a lethargic manner. Due to this, Amanda imagines herself as a mermaid swimming freely and drifting joyously in the light green sea. She wants to live a calm and relaxed life in the beautiful green sea and that too, alone.

·        Suddenly, her mother drags Amanda out of her dreams asking her if she has completed her homework. She also reminds her to tidy her room and clean her shoes.

·        Amanda loves daydreaming as she wants to run away from her reality. She imagines herself to be an orphan wandering freely, barefoot in dry mud. She imagines that there is no one to stop her from making patterns in soft dust by her soft feet. For her silence is golden and uninterrupted freedom is sweet. She loves to live a peaceful and quiet life.

·        Her mother’s nagging and complaints break her daydream again. This time her mother rebukes her to eat chocolates and reminds that due to this she is getting acne and pimples. She also demands that Amanda should look at her while she is talking to her.

·        This constant nagging has made her so upset that she always wants to escape from her reality and run away from her mother. Since mother tries to forbid Amanda from doing what she desires, she has another dream in which she fantasizes herself as Rapunzel, a character from a fairy tale and wants to live peacefully like her in a tower. She wishes that she will never let her hair down from the tower like Rapunzel and allow anyone to climb the tower and come inside. There, she will live alone and lead a peaceful life.

·        Finally, the mother chides her for being moody and asks her not to look sad otherwise people would consider her as bad mother and blame her for the continuous nagging and correction. At the end no reaction came from Amanda, perhaps, due to bitterness, she has stopped dreaming and come back into her real world. 

Video on Anne Gregory

Rhyme Scheme of the poem


Poetic Devices:

Don’t bite your nails, Amanda! – Apostrophe

Don’t bite your nails, Amanda!

Don’t hunch your shoulders, Amanda – Anaphora

Did you finish your homework, Amanda? - Alliteration  

Did you tidy your room, Amanda? – Anaphora, Alliteration 

There is a languidemerald sea - Metaphor, Personification 

A mermaid drifting blissfully - Assonance

I thought I told you to clean your shoes - Assonance  Repetition, Alliteration  

Stop that sulking at once, Amanda! – Alliteration,  Assonance

Life in a tower is tranquil and rare – Alliteration, Assonance 

Life in a tower itranquil and rare – Assonance 

The silence is golden,  freedom is sweet- Metaphor

I am Rapunzel - Allusion 

There is a languidemerald sea - Consonance

A mermaid drifting blissfully - Allusion 

The silence is golden, the freedom is sweet - Repetition         


Message of the poem

The poetess has conveyed the message clearly enough that the parents need to understand their children, treat them lovingly and tenderly and develop friendship with them, especially in their growing years. The tender heart of young adults should be touched with love and their feelings should not be hurt.

Important Question Answers

Q 1. Why are the stanzas 2, 4 and 6 are put in parenthesis?

Ans. The stanzas 2, 4 and 6 describe the reactions of Amanda to her mother's instructions and corrections. They are her feelings, desires and her dreams but they are not expressed as she doesn't speak anything to her mother. They remain unexpressed and closed in her heart that's why the poet has used parenthesis to signify these unexpressed and hidden feelings and desires.

Q 2. Do you think Amanda is sulking and is moody?

Ans. I think Amanda is lost in her daydream and is living in her imaginary world. Since she is not paying attention to her mother, she thinks that she is moody. The mother realises her mistake as she has been giving her constant reminders and her constant nagging. But,  she doesn't want to take the blame that's why she asks Amanda not to sulk or feel bad. In fact, Amanda can be called as moody as she gets mood swings. If she is not in mood of listening or responding, she won't do anything. She was daydreaming and lost in her beautiful imaginary world as she wanted to avoid her mother.

Q3. “A mother is the child’s first school”. How far is Amanda’s mother true to this statement?

Ans. Amanda's mother also serves as her first school, but in different sense. She is depicted as a strict and critical figure who is always correcting Amanda's behaviour, from her posture and habits to her academic performance and personal hygiene. While her intentions may be good, her methods are shown to be ineffective, and in some cases, harmful. By constantly nit-picking Amanda's behaviour, her mother creates an atmosphere of tension and anxiety, which only serves to make Amanda feel worse about herself. This also causes Amanda to feel like being misunderstood, leading her to seek solace in imaginary worlds and fantasies. The methods of Amanda's mother do not come across as conducive to achieving this goal. Rather than focusing on Amanda's strengths and encouraging her to develop them, she highlights her weaknesses and shortcomings. Amanda is thus, left feeling undervalued, which could have a negative impact on her self-esteem and mental health. A mother is not only to teach and correct but also to understand and support and Amanda’s mother fails in doing so.

Video on Amanda Class 10

 Q1. Read the following extracts carefully and answer the questions that follow.

RTC 1.
“Don’t bite your nails, Amanda!
Don’t hunch your shoulders, Amanda!
Stop that slouching and sit up straight,

(a) Amanda is getting instructions for what purpose?
(b) Give a synonym of ‘hunch’.
(c) What does the speaker of above lines instruct Amanda in the first stanza?
(d) What is the literary device used in the third line?


RTC 2.
“There is a languid, emerald sea,

where the sole inhabitant is me

a mermaid drifting blissfully.”

(a) Why are these lines given within brackets?
(b) Give the word from the passage which means free flowing act of going with the motion and force?
(c) What is the role of mermaid here?                                                                               
(d) Which word in the extract means opposite of ‘sorrowful’?                                        (e) What is the mood of Amanda here?                                                                             (f) Pick out a poetic device in first line.



(a) Amanda is getting instructions as a part of her upbringing. Her conduct and manners are getting refined for future purposes.

(b) droop/bend.

(c) Amanda is getting instructed for not biting her nails and not sitting lazily with her shoulders bent as these actions will spoil her personality and hinder her growth.

(d) Literary device used in third line is Alliteration. ‘Stop that slouching and sit up straight’.


(a) These lines are given within brackets because they reveal the inner thoughts of Amanda which she prefers not to express. Brackets are used for visual contrast between what Amanda is thinking and what her mother is instructing. 

(b) The word 'Drifting' means free flowing act of going with the motion.

(c) Mermaid is a part of Amanda’s fantasy in her own dreamy world. As mermaid sails in a sea carelessly and effortlessly, similarly Amanda longs to do so in a place where she is all by herself. Evidently she wants live in a world of fantasy, away from reality.

(d) 'Blissfully' is opposite of sorrowful.

(e) Amanda is a moody girl and right now she is not in mood of doing anything. She acts like a rebel whose thoughts and desires are not expressed.

(f) Metaphor (emerald sea)


Tuesday 11 August 2020

Footprints without Feet

Footprints without Feet

                                  By H. G. Wells


·       The chapter ‘Footprints without Feet’ is an extract from a hugely popular science fiction ‘The Invisible Man’ written by H. G. Wells.

·       H. G. Wells is an English writer who is renowned for his science fiction novels The Invisible Man', ‘The Time machine’ and ‘The War of the Worlds’.

·       The chapter 'Footprints without Feet’ includes the adventures of Griffin, the scientist after being invisible.

·       The story highlights the theme that science is a double edged weapon which may be highly dangerous if not used carefully and wisely.

·       It also conveys the message that all the advancements and progress should be used for the good of mankind in general as well as in particular.

·       Griffin is portrayed as a lawless person characterised by quick temper, selfish attitude and criminal mind.   


Previous Story

A brilliant scientist named Griffin was curious to discover the ways to become invisible. After many attempts he could discover a rare drug which could make a man invisible. He swallowed that drug and became invisible. When he was roaming naked in the busy streets of London, he was exposed to the chilly winter in the month of January. While escaping from the busy streets of London, he was pushed into wet mud and his feet were stained.


Summary /  Synopsis of the chapter


·       Griffin was first noticed by the two boys, when he stepped on freshly painted staircase of a house and left his footprints there. They were surprised as they could only see footprints going up and coming down the steps but could find no one there. They followed him until the footprints became faint. The surprised boys didn’t know that the man was a scientist who had discovered a rare drug. When he swallowed the drug, he became invisible.

·       Griffin was a lawless person who set his landlord’s house on fire because he had removed him from his house. Thus, he became homeless and cashless, and was wandering completely naked in the streets of London in the month of January.

·       As it was difficult for Griffin to bear biting cold of January month, he sneaked into London Store, stole clothes, ate and drank to his satisfaction and slept there. Since he couldn’t manage to wake up before the store opened next morning, the store people followed him. He could only escape after removing all his clothes.

·       He, then, decided to rob a shop giving supplies to a theatrical company. He stole clothes, some bandages to cover his face, thick moustache, false nose, dark glasses and a wide rimmed hat. He also attacked the shopkeeper and stole cash from him.

·       Then, he decided to avoid the crowd of London and headed to a small village, Iping. There, he booked two rooms in an inn. The land lady, Mrs. Hall was very happy to have a rich customer but curious to know about him. Griffin warned her and others to disturb him as he wanted peace and solitude for his work. He paid rent in advance that’s why Mrs. Hall didn’t mind his strange behaviour and odd appearance.

·        After some time he ran out of cash and told Mrs. Hall that he would be receiving his cheque soon and would pay after few days. Since he didn’t have any money, he stole from the house of a clergyman who could only hear the sounds of theft but could find no one in his room.

·       Same morning, Mrs. Hall and her husband woke early and finding Griffin’s room wide open entered to know more about their strange customer. But nobody was there, only his clothes, bandages and hat were lying on bed. All of a sudden Griffin entered and tried to hit them with the furniture. Mrs. Hall was in shock to think that her mother’s chair is spirited and the room is haunted as she could see no one attacking them.

·       The village constable was secretly called. Mrs. Hall suspected the scientist and asked him how he came out of an empty room and entered a locked room. Griffin got furious and started removing his hat and bandages as he wanted to scare them showing his reality.

·       Just then, Mr. Jaffers, the constable reached the place and got surprised and nervous to think how he would arrest a headless man. But he was determined enough and started running after him to arrest. All started running here and there to catch Griffin but got hit as he was becoming invisible bit by bit. At last, Mr. Jaffers also was hit badly and got unconscious. In this complete chaos Griffin managed to run away from the place.

 Video on Footprints without Feet

Summary of the Book ‘The Invisible Man’

The Invisible man’ is hugely popular as a science fiction, first published in 1897. The story is about a brilliant scientist, Griffin who discovered a wonder drug, swallowed it and became invisible but after being naked he was exposed to heat, cold and all the nature's furies. To escape extreme cold of London he stayed in an inn where he stole, attacked land lord and was discovered. He had to run away from there. 

After that he started keeping an iron rod with him and with that iron rod he committed his first murder. Then he met a tramp, Thomas Marvel whom he made his assistant and with him went to the same village, Iping to recover the records of his experiments from the inn where he had stayed. But Marvel betrayed him stealing his notes and informing the police.

In revenge Griffin tried to kill Marvel but, he himself got shot. He escaped and took shelter in the house of Mr. Kemp who happened to be of his acquaintance from medical school. Griffin revealed everything about his discovery and his miserable condition. He also revealed his secret plan ‘Reign of Terror’ in which he would use his invisibility to terrorise the nation. Mr. Kemp wasn’t willing to support his insane proposal that’s why he informed authorities about Griffin who was successful in running away.

Griffin announced that Kemp would be the first one to get murdered under his ‘Reign of Terror’. Kemp, being cool headed offered himself as a bait to trap Griffin.  The Scotland Yard inspector and all the local people came to Kemp’s help. At last Griffin was shot and attacked brutally, received fatal injuries and finally died. Marvel kept safe with him Griffin’s notes which were useless for him but with the help of his stolen money he became a successful businessman.


Griffin as a Scientist 

As a scientist Griffin was wonderful and brilliant, and could have been a remarkable asset to the world. His brilliant mind, studies and experiments made it possible for him to discover a rare drug that made him invisible. His discovery could have proved to be path breaking and been used for the good of entire mankind and many other purposes but, alas, his lawless nature brought a sad fate to the scientist. 


Griffin as a Person 

In spite of being a brilliant scientist Griffin was a lawless, irresponsible and selfish person. He was a man of crooked mind, hot temper and selfish temperament. His selfish intentions made him steal, hurt people and commit crimes. He set the house of his previous land lord on fire, stole from the clergyman and robbed the shops and attacked Mrs. Hall.  Eventually, he met with a sad fate and died. 

Important Question answers

Q1. What impression do you form of Griffin as a scientist? How could he have proved himself as a responsible citizen of his country? 

Ans. Despite being a brilliant scientist Griffin is a case of human ambition devoid of sense and sensibility. He was obsessed with his desire to be invisible, he did not think of its pros and cons, behaved as a lawless thief and unscrupulous man.

He could have used his discovery for his country’s advancement and progress. He, as a responsible citizen of his country, should have thought to use this gift for security or humanitarian purposes. 

Q2. What does H. G. Wells convey through this story?

Ans. The writer, H. G. Wells conveys through the story that science is a double edged weapon which may be highly dangerous if not used carefully and wisely. Science is a great blessing that can work miracle and can make this world more advanced and more beautiful when put to use with wiser, logical and wider perspective.

The story also conveys the message that all the advancements and progress should be used for the good of mankind in general as well as in particular. Griffin used his invisibility to terrorise and hurt people, and satisfy his selfish purposes, thus faced tragic death and wasted his achievements and brilliance with himself only.