Friday, 23 November 2018

Tenses - Present Perfect Tense

                      Tenses

The word ‘tense’ is derived from Latin word ‘tempus’ and it means time. Basically tense conveys the time of action.

Tenses are mainly divided into parts – Present, Past and Future. They are further subdivided into three categories – Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous.



PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE is generally used to show that the action mentioned in the sentence is complete, perfect or finished at the time of being reported. We use this tense to show a completed action in the immediate past.

Basic Structure of Sentence

Basic structure of a sentence in this tense is –
Subject + Has/Have + V3 (third form of verb ) + Object

Present Perfect Tense is used to describe/show –

1. Something that started in the past and continues in the present:

For example :
I haven't seen him for several days.
We’ve been married for nearly twenty years.
They have known him for a long time.
It has rained a lot this year.

2. An action that was completed in the immediate past :

For example :
I have sprained my ankle.
They have just boarded the train.
I have had enough of it.
Has he left for Canada?
We have just bought a new car.

3.  A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now:

For example :
We have visited Agra several times.
I have watched ‘Sholay’ ten times
We have visited our grandparents many times.
She has been here frequently.

4. An action when the time is not important or not given or not known:

For example :
I have read 'Alchemist'.
I have known him to be generous.

Adverbs/Adverb phrases used -

Just
often



never
Till now
So far
By now
Until now




ever
already
for
today
yet

this week
this month
since


Example :
Have you ever seen God?
Where have you been till now?
Have you finished your homework yet?
No, so far I’ve only done my English work.
They have not raised a doubt until now.

Note : We should never use Present Perfect Tense with adverbs of past time (yesterday, last year, etc.)

Sequence with other Tenses

Have you played the piano since you were a child? (with simple past)
The children have made the drawings as they were instructed. (with simple past)
He has written three books and he is working on another one. (with present continuous)
My mother has been a dedicated teacher the way she is, now (with simple present)

Verb form used in the Present Perfect Tense–

The present perfect form of any verb is composed of two elements:
1. Appropriate form of auxiliary/helping verb (have) – have (plural)/has (singular)
2. Verb's third form (V3) – been, taught, learnt, played, sang, slept, gone, etc.
Singular subject takes singular helping verb. Has + Verb 3 (third form of verb)
Plural subject takes plural helping verb. Have + Verb 3 (third form of verb)


 Plural verbs
 Have+Verb 3 (third form of verb)
  Singular verbs
  Has+Verb 3 (third form of verb)
  Have slept
  Has slept
  Have worked
  Has worked
  Have gone
  Has gone
  Have tried
  Have tried
  Have written
Has written
  Have made
Has made
  Have drawn
Has drawn
  Have taught
Has taught
  Have brought
Has brought
  Have spoken
Has spoken

Examples :
 I have travelled far.
 We have enjoyed the show.
 He has been very hard working in his life.
These girls have practised every day for three hours.
 Ananya have studied in a boarding school.
I have always loved reading mystery books.

Note : I and You, in spite of being singular, take plural verbs. It is an exception to the rule.

Exercise for practice

Complete the following sentences with appropriate for of verbs given in bracket.

1.     Mr. Smith _________ us Spanish. (teach)
2.     Mona ______________ how to swim. (learn)
3.     They ________  the match. (play)
4.     Rakesh _________ care of his sister very well. (take)
5.      I _________  ‘Avatar’. (watch)
6.     My granny _________ very generous. (be)
7.     We _________ every day for an hour. (practise)
8.     My parents _____________ how to speak English. (not learn)
9.     Aunt Lisa __________ cookies for me. (bake)
10.  My friends ________ very well. (perform)   




Answers :


1.     Has taught   2. Has learnt    3. Have played   4. Has taken  
5. Have watched     6. has been   7. Have practised  
8.  Have not learnt    9. Has baked  10. Have performed