Sunday 23 February 2020


Conjunctions or Connectors
     Conjunctions join two or more words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

*   They are also known as Connectors or Linkers.

Kinds of Connectors :

I. Coordinating Connectors  

They join two or more simple sentences to make a compound sentence.  
They are of four types :

1. Cumulative Connectors  ( adding an information, similar fact ) – and, also, as well as, not only – but also

Rakesh and his friends went to watch a movie, today.
He won a prize for debate competition as well as scored 91% marks in class.

2. Adversative Connectors ( joining two contrasting facts/traits/conditions) – but, still, only, whereas, while, yet

She tried her best but could not win the competition.
Reena makes mistakes whereas her brother’s performance is flawless.
I have watched the play several times still I enjoy it.

3. Alternative Connectors ( adding two different options/ ) – or, either – or, neither – nor,  else, otherwise

Will you renovate the house or sell it off?
You may either stay here peacefully or get lost.
Complete your work otherwise you will be punished.

4. Illative Connectors ( adding a reason /relation /explanation / consequence ) – so, therefore, for, hence, that’s why

I was sick therefore I could not attend the meeting.
He is poor so he cannot afford this gift.
Pramod did not complete his work for he was sick.

II. Subordinating Connectors

They join two or more clauses to make one Complex Sentence. Following are the types of Subordinating Connectors :

a. Connectors of Place ( where, wherever)

I don't know where Sameer lives.
People will follow him wherever he goes.

b. Connectors of Time (when, Before, After, Since, till, until)

My grandfather had died before I was born.
He was sorry after he had done it.
We shall stay here till you return.
I have been living here since I was a child.

c. Connectors of reason (Because, Since, As, Why)

I believe it since you say so.
We should not smoke as it is injurious to health.
Rakesh did not attend the class because he was unwell.

d. Connectors of condition (If, Unless, provided)

Work hard if you wish to succeed in life.
He cannot achieve his goal unless he is focussed.
He may win the race provided he improves his speed.

e. Connectors of Comparison (Than, so-as, as-as)

Tom runs slower than Jerry (does)
Harish is not so smart as his younger brother.
She is as intelligent as her mother.

f. Connectors of Purpose (So that, that, lest)

You must work that you may live.
We must practise hard so that we may win.
He held my hand lest I should fall.

g. Connectors of Manner (How)

I could not notice how she broke the watch.
You would never know how he reached here.

 h. Connectors of Concession (Although, Though, yet)

Though Alok is poor, yet he is honest.
Although it was dark, I could see his face.

Exercises :

a. _____ He has done this ________ his brother.
b. You are taller ______ he.
c. I cannot give you any money ________ I have none.
d. Sneha is intelligent __________ she is beautiful.
e. You have to work hard _______ you want to achieve your goal.
f. Mr. Verma is busy these days ______________ he is not seen in gatherings.
g. I came back home ________ had my lunch.
h. I finished first __________ I started late.
i. Keep quiet ______ leave my office.
j. Don’t try to tell lie ________  I know truth.

Answers :
a. Either – or       b. than        c. since                d. as well as         e. if  
f. that’s why        g. and         h. though             i. or                      j. as

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