Wednesday 29 January 2020

Modal Auxiliary

Modal Auxiliaries (Modals)

 Points to remember :

·        Modals are special verbs used as helping verbs.
·        They are used with main/principal verb as helping verbs (Modals + V1)
·        They don’t change form according to tenses, persons of pronouns and number and   gender of noun.
·        For past reference there are different modal auxiliaries.
·        They express various moods and attitudes.

S. No.
Expressions / Moods / Attitudes
Ability, capacity
hopeful possibility, request, suggestion
 strong possibility, assurance, determination
Polite offer of help, wish, hope, formal expression
Formal and polite request, want, desire
Duty, obligation, advice
Permission, possibility (less likely than will)
Least possibility, probability, doubt
Necessity, strong obligation
Used to
Habitual action
Urgency, necessity
Show courage
Choose option
Ought to
Obligation with desirability
Have to

Compound Modal Auxiliaries – could have, would have, should have, will have, shall have, must have express similar moods in perfect tense.

Examples :

1. Can        (Ability, capacity)
I can do it. (ability)
He can solve this sum in a minute. (ability)
Can you lift this heavy bag? (capacity)

2. Could     (past equivalent of can, hopeful possibility, request, suggestion)
She could have been little more polite? (suggestion)
You could help your friend. (possibility)
Could you pass me the dish? (request)

3. Will        (Certainty, strong possibility, assurance, determination)
They will visit a hilly station in summer. (certainty/decision)
I will score above 90% marks in the examinations. (assurance)
It will rain next week. (strong possibility)

4. Would    (Formal and polite request, want, desire)
I would like to have coffee. (formal and polite form of want)
He would never ask for his help.  (strong possibility)
Would you please answer my query. (formal and polite request)

5. Shall       (Polite offer of help, wish, hope)
When shall we see you again? (wish/formal expression)
Shall I do it for you? (polite offer of help)
We shall overcome. (hope)

6. Should   (duty, obligation, advice)
We should obey our teachers. (obligation)
You should never tell lies. (advice)

7. May        (Permission, possibility (less likely than will))
You may sit wherever you want. (giving permission)
May I go now? (seeking permission)
It may rain today. (possibility)

8. Might     (Least possibility, probability, expression of doubt)
I might come for dinner tonight. (least possibility)
He might be at home now. (probability)

9. Must       (Necessity, strong obligation)
We must follow traffic rules. (strong obligation)
You must practise hard for the examinations. (necessity)

10. Used to (Habitual action)
I used to walk a mile to go to school. (habitual action)
I used to play marbles when I was a child. (habitual action)

11. Need     (Urgency, necessity)
We need to perform our duties sincerely. (Urgency)
You need to work hard to pass the test. (necessity)

12. Dare    (Show courage)
How dare you contradict me? (Show courage)
He doesn’t dare speak to me. (Show courage)

13. Ought to    (Obligation with desirability)
We ought to love our neighbour. (Obligation with desirability)
We ought to help the needy. (Obligation with desirability)

14. Have to (compulsion)
You have to complete this work before you leave. (compulsion)
I have to reach home by 9 p.m.  (compulsion)

15. Prefer   (Choose option)
I prefer to live in plains. (Choose option)
I prefer coffee to tea. (Choose option)

Video on will or shall

Exercises :

Fill in the blanks appropriately.
a. I _____________ swim when I was young.
b. ___________ we go to some other place?
c. Arjun _______ eat with us tonight.
d. __________ you like to have a sandwich?
e. People _______ exercise regularly.
f. ______ you wait till I come?
g. He _______ come tomorrow.
h. You ________ take complete bedrest.
i. Rohan _________ improve his spelling.
j. We ________ help the poor.

Video on Integrated Grammar

Answers :
a. Used to    b. Shall       c. may         d. would     e. should     f. will         
g. may         h. must        i. needs to    j. ought to

Saturday 11 January 2020

11 Golden rules to crack English board exam

11 golden rules for scoring 95% and above in English Exam

·        Always put your best foot forward –
Attempt the section as per your strength.
If you are good at creative writing and grammar, first of all, attempt section B.
Otherwise, attempt Literature part, as it is the best prepared section.
If you are confused, attempt A, B and C in the order it is given in the paper.

·        Distribute your time wisely –
Writing - 45 minutes 
Grammar – 15 minutes
Literature – 60 minutes
Reading – 45 minutes
Revision – 15 minutes

·        Find time to draw margins at right hand side in the beginning and align your answers to the left and right margins; don’t leave space here and there. Make your answers look neat. Underline important points/information in your answers.

·        Leave at least 3 lines between two answers.

·        During revision if you feel like adding any information or point or correct some sentences, you will have space to do so.

·        After completing your paper neatly draw a line between two answers.

·        Don’t do cutting of the answers or overwriting, instead neatly rewrite them. If you require cutting some word or answer, strike it off once or twice neatly and rewrite it.

·        Read the questions carefully to understand them and attempt the ones which you can do best according to your information and abilities, when there is a choice. Never try to attempt both.

·        For Reading comprehension read questions first and then read the passage. While reading quickly underline difficult words, important terms and sentences and then try to pick answers from these lines and words.

·        Never forget to write question number.

·        Practice a lot. Solve at least 10 sample question papers.