Saturday 11 February 2023

Types of sentence


What is a Sentence –

A sentence is a set of words that conveys a definite and logical meaning.

A sentence is divided into two major parts.

1. Subject - Radhika

2. Predicate – is an intelligent girl.


On the basis of structure there are four types of sentence.

1. Assertive Sentence ( also called as Declarative, Sentence of Statement, Simple sentence )

Structure of Assertive Sentence – subject + helping verb + main verb + object + object complement


Examples –

I am dancing.

They were dancing.

He is a good dancer.

He has submitted his project.

You will watch TV in the evening.

She likes chocolates.

Rita loves to dance on drum beats.

You speak softly.

Garima loved the movie.


How to turn it into Negative sentence –


1. by adding ‘NOT’ after helping verb / between helping verb and main verb.

I am not dancing.

They were not dancing.

He is not a good dancer.

He has not submitted his project.

You will not watch TV in the evening.


2. by adding ‘DO/DOES/DID with NOT’ before main verb (in case of helping verb is not used in the sentence.

She does not like chocolates. (likes – does + like)

Rita does not love to dance on drum beats. (loves – does + love)

You do not speak softly. (speak – do + speak)

Garima did not love the movie. (loved – did + love)


2. Interrogative Sentence ( Questions )

Structure – Question Word (optional) + helping verb + subject + main verb + object + object complement + question mark (?)

Examples –

Why are you so late?

What haven’t you spoken to the boss?

Why did you not join our play?

What is your good name?

When is your birthday?

What is your intention?

Did you reach the place on time?

Are you not coming with us?

Is it your first time?

Is it that you performed yesterday?


3. Imperative Sentence – (order, request, command, advice, suggestion, apology, regret, pleading, prohibition)

Structure – Verb + object +  object complement

Examples –

Close the door.

Read that book.

Don’t turn off the fan.

Please bring me a cup of coffee.

Pass me the salt.

Please don’t bang the door. Please help the poor. (He advised to help the poor.0

Don’t pluck flowers from the garden.

Use a ballpoint pen instead of gel pen.

Sorry! please forgive me.

Let’s (Let us) go for a picnic this weekend.


Exclamatory Sentence – (sudden outburst of emotions, feelings or expressions – fear, joy, sorrow, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, pity, excitement)

Structure – exclamatory word + subject + helping verb + main verb + object + object complement + exclamatory mark ( ! )

Examples –

Alas! I broke my leg.

Wow! Such a beautiful rain it is.

OMG! What a pleasant surprise you have given me.

Ouch! It is paining.

Hurrah! We won the match.

Oh no! Time of the exam is over.

What a lovely painting it is!


Transformation of Sentences

 Exercise :

Q. Transform the following sentences as directed:

1. She likes chocolates (negative)

She doesn’t dislike chocolate.

2. She sings melodiously. Doesn’t she? (Interrogative)

Doesn’t she sing melodiously?

3. Everyone knows the colour of water. (Interrogative)

Who doesn’t know the colour of water?

4. Today the weather is very pleasant. (Exclamatory)

How beautiful the weather is, today!

5. I attended the board meeting. (Negative)

I did not fail to attend the board meeting.

6. I never tell lies. (Assertive)

I always speak the truth.

7. Please help me solve this problem. (Assertive)

You are requested to help me solve this problem,

8. Rajasthan is the largest state of India. (Negative)

No other state is as large as Rajasthan.

How to Convert into negative

Thursday 9 February 2023

Common Errors in English Grammar

How to Fix Common Errors People make

I. Related to Tense and Verb

1.       Do + V1

          Does + V1

          Did + V1

Examples :

Do you read books?

She doesn’t speak softly.

I did not go to school yesterday.


2. In Simple Present Tense singular verb is V1 + s / es (reads, goes, writes, smiles, plays)

Plural verb is V1 (read, go, write, smile, play)

Examples :

She writes very neatly. (Singular – V1 + es )

Meera dances gracefully. (Singular – V1+es )

He always fights with people.  (Singular – V1+s )

My friends do not trust me. (plural)

They play cricket. (plural)

These children make so much noise. (plural)


3. I (first person of pronoun) and you (second person of pronoun) are special cases and they take plural verb even though they are singular. (It is an exception to the rule no. 2)

Examples of the exceptiion :

I read before going to bed. (plural verb – special case of first person of pronoun)

You swim very fast. (plural verb – special case of second person of pronoun)


4. Has + V3 (present – singular)

Have + V3 (present – plural)

Had + V3 (past singular and plural)

Examples :

He has just reached. (singular)

She has tried her best. (singular)

I have already read this book. (plural)

They haven’t tried enough. (plural)

The children had left the school by that time. (past)

You had gone before I called. (past)


5. To + V1 (to go, to study, to know, to learn, to play, to do)

Examples :

We go to school to study.

I wanted to read this book.

I don’t like to be with him.

Why didn’t you try to win the competition?


6. 'Each' and 'every' are singular, hence take singular verb and singular possessive pronoun.

Examples :

Each child got his/her gift.

Every person has a unique personality.

II. Related to homophones

1.       There (place)                           Their (related to people)

Here (place)                             They (people)

Adverb of place                       personal pronoun


I was reading the newspaper there.

I was reading their newspaper.


2.       Then (adverb)                          Than (conjunction)

Refers to time                          comparison between two


          He wanted to say something to you, then.

          She is smarter than I.  (am – not written)


3.       Its (form of it)                          It’s (it is)

          Possessive pronoun                 short form of it is

          The ant found its food.            It’s too late to go there.


III. Use of apostrophe ( ’ )

1. To show possession/ownership of singular noun/subject

 with singular subject ( Noun + ’ + S )

e.g. This is my brother’s bat.

       The boy's parents are really worried.

       The book's title is very interesting.

2. To show possession/ownership of plural noun/subject or words/names ending with ‘s’ with plural subjects  (Noun + ’ )

e.g. These girls’ nails are always long.

More examples :

This is shiva’s bag. – singular

The students’ bags are lying on the floor. – plural

The children’s recess is not over. – plural

We should honour all our men’s freedom.

I don’t see where Charles’ coat is kept. – singular

Teacher’s day (general reference)  

Happy teachers’ day (wish to a group of teachers)

3. To show contraction ( I’m, I’ve, don’t, can’t, didn’t, you’re, I’ll, it’s )

For example :

You’re (you are) an exceptionally talented player.

It’s (it is) not a good day.

You ain’t (are not) a good singer.

I’ll (I will) myself go and see.

She didn’t (did not) know anything about this.

IV Related to Pronoun (subjective, objective and possessive case) –

1.  I and my friends vs. Me and my friends (misunderstood both the phrases                  as same)

I is used as (subjective case of pronoun)

Me is used as (objective case of pronoun)

Examples –

I and my friends are going to picnic.

They did not invite me and my friends to their birthday party.

2. Yours, ours, theirs, its are possessive pronouns and apostrophe (‘)                                                              
           should not be used before last ‘s’

Example - Yours sincerely (and not your’s sincerely)