Friday, 1 May 2020

Non - Finite Verbs

Non-Finite Verbs (Verbals)

A Non-Finite is not a verb.
It is a different part of speech.

Finite Verbs : They denote main action or work done by subject (doer).
e.g. work, sleep, play, read, study, stand, win, laugh, sing, teach, write, etc.

Non-Finite Verbs : These verbs don’t denote an action and don’t function as verb. They function as noun or adjective.
e.g. to work, to sleep, to play, to study, standing, winning, laughing, writing, etc.

Types of Non-Finite Verb :
There are three kinds of Non-Finite Verb -

1. Infinitive – To + V1   ( Work of Noun )
e.g. to play, to sleep, to sing, to know, to study, to go, to live
1. I go to school to study.                               (Purpose)
2. I went to Agra to visit Taj Mahal.                      (Purpose)
3. To err is human and to forgive is divine.           (action)
4. He likes to play cards.                                        (hobby)
5. I wept to see the dead bodies in the battle ground. (reason)

2. Gerund – A Gerund is a Non-Finite Verb (verbal) that ends in –ing and functions as a noun.
Gerund – V1 + ing  ( Work of Noun )
e.g. playing, watching, running, breaking, reading, studying, working
1. I love playing Cricket.
2. Walking in the morning is good for health.
3. Reading good literature enriches us.

Functions of Gerund :
A Gerund can be used as a
        subject to the verb,
        object to verb,
        complement to verb, and
        object of preposition.

For example :
1. All appreciated my singing. – Object to Verb
2. He apologized for being late. – Complement to preposition
3. What I detest most is smoking. - Complement to verb
4. Swimming was her favourite activity. – Subject to Verb

Note : A Gerund usually is the answer of ‘what’. It is the name of some activity or work hence it is noun.

3. Participles – A Participle is a form of a verb (Non-Finite) that functions as an adjective.
For example – I love to see the rising sun.
Rising is the Participle because it is a verb describing the noun—sun.
There are three kinds of participle: present, past and perfect participle.

1. Present participle – 1st form of verb – V1 + ing
e.g. leaping, blazing, withering
Clouds hid the shining stars.
I am scared of approaching storm.

2. Past participle –  3rd form of verb ( V3 )
e.g. Pumped, burnt, broken
I can’t draw with this broken pencil.
He was wearing a tattered coat.

3. Perfect participle – having + 3rd form of verb
        e.g. having eaten, having read, having completed
Having completed my homework I went out to play.
Having been beaten he got furious.

Note – Participles aren’t preceded by helping verbs and finite verbs or main verbs take helping verbs before ing forms.

 e.g. The speeding sedan hit the tree. ( participle )
The sedan was speeding down the road. ( finite verb)

More Examples :
My friends were playing in the ground. ( finite verb )
I am working for a shoe manufacturing unit. ( finite verb ) & ( participle )
He is playing his part very well. ( finite verb )
Today I saw a spinning wheel. ( Participle )

Difference between Gerund & Present Participle

Let’s practise:

Daniel started doing his homework at 6 pm. - Gerund
The old man was tired of walking.                 - Gerund
I love to watch the rising sun.                        - Participle
I cannot go on doing nothing.                        - Gerund
Walking is the best exercise.                        - Gerund
Who invented the spinning wheel?                - Participle
Hunting a tiger is banned in our country.      - Gerund
I like reading poetry.                                      - Gerund
Jumping over the fence, the thief escaped.    - Participle
Praising all alike is praising none.                - Gerund
I saw the clown standing on his head.           - Participle
Hearing the noise, I woke up.                         - Participle
I admire your acting.                                     – Gerund

Exercise 1.
Tell whether non-finite verb in following sentences is Gerund or Present Participle.

1. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
2. He was found fighting desperately for his life.
3. Asking questions is always easier.
4. The miser spends his time in hoarding money.
5. Success is not merely winning applause.
6. Singing to herself was her chief delight.
7. They spent whole afternoon playing cards.
8. Amassing wealth often ruins health.
9. I thank you for teaching me a lesson of life.
10. I saw a man walking on the rope.

Answers :
1.  Rolling – Present Participle      2.  Fighting – Present Participle   
3. Asking – Gerund                         4. Hoarding – Gerund
5. Winning – Gerund                     6.  Singing – Gerund
7. Playing – Present Participle       8. Amassing – Gerund
9. Teaching – Gerund                     10. Walking – Present Participle

Exercise 2. Pick out non-finite verbs and specify their types.

1. It was a lost battle.
2. The captain saved the sinking ship.
3. You are sitting on a broken chair.
4. While playing the baby slept in his bed.
5. A burnt child dreads fire.
6. They rose early to play in the park.
7. The baby was happy to see the birds flying in the air.
8. The moving train stopped suddenly and avoided the accident.
9. We go to school to study.
10. Having worked hard whole day I slept soundly.

Answers :
1. Lost – Past Participle                      2. Sinking - Present Participle  
3. Broken – Past Participle                 4. Playing –  Present Participle
5. Burnt – Past Participle                    6. To play – Infinitive
7. To see – Infinitive, Flying – Present Participle   8. Moving – Present Participle
9. To study – Infinitive                      10. Having worked – Perfect  Participle

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