Wednesday 5 February 2020

Reported Speech

Direct – Indirect Narration ( Reported Speech )

Direct Narration – a dialogue between two people face to face
e.g. Mohan says to Radha, “I have completed my work.”

Indirect Narration – the same dialogue reported to the third person.
e.g. Mohan tells Radha that he had completed his work.

Change in Pronoun

1. First person of pronoun ( I, we ) in reported speech changes according to subject of reporting verb.
2.  Second person of pronoun ( you, your ) in reported speech changes according to object of reporting verb.
3. Third person of pronoun ( he, she, it, they ) in reported speech does not change.



Change in Tense

Present tenses
Past tenses
Past tenses
Past perfect tense
Past perfect
Past perfect

Note : Tense does not change in the sentence that conveys universal truth or the facts.

Change in adverb
That day
That night
Next day
Previous day

Other Changes
Replied in affirmative
Replied in negative

Note : Reporting verb and inverted commas  change according to types of sentences.

Changing various types of sentences

1. Assertive sentence

Reporting verbs  – said, told

For example –
The teacher said, “Today, I am going to teach you Probability.”
The teacher said that she was going to teach them probability that day.
Ram said, “Brother, I am in trouble.”
Ram told his brother that he was in trouble.

2. Interrogative Sentence

Reporting verbs  – asked, enquired, interrogated

For example –
Father said, “Son, why are you crying?”
Father asked son why he was crying.
Sohail said to his friend, “Are you going for movie, today?”
Sohail asked his friend if he was going for movie that day.
Father said, “Ravi, why are you not studying for your examinations?”
Father asked Ravi why he was not studying for his examinations.

3. Imperative sentence

Reporting verbs – ordered, commanded, requested, urged, asked, pleaded, forbade, advised, suggested, apologised, scolded

For example –
Mr. Verma  said to peon, “Bring me the file of Glorious Constructions.”
Mr. Verma ordered peon to bring him the file of Glorious Constructions.
Mr. Kalra said, “Suresh, bring a nice cup of coffee for me, please.”
Mr. Kalra requested Suresh to bring a nice cup of coffee for him.
The Teacher said, “Students, work hard for assured success.”
The teacher advised the students to work hard for assured success.
Rohan said to the teacher, “Sorry sir, please forgive me.”
Rohan apologised the teacher respectfully and urged to forgive him.

4. Exclamatory Sentence

Reporting verbs – exclaimed with sorrow, grief, joy, happiness, anger, surprise, awe, wonder, pride, horror, anguish, etc.

For example ---
The coach exclaimed, “Bravo! my boys, you have done a splendid job.”
The coach exclaimed with joy saying that his boys had done a splendid job.
The visitor exclaimed, “What a lovely painting it is.”
The visitor exclaimed with admiration saying that that was a lovely painting.

Exercise 1
a. Gita said, “Mother, I want to take rest.”
b. The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
c. Mohan said to his friend, “I don’t know the fact.”
d. He said, “Ravi, will you help me?”
e. Mr. Khanna said to his son, “Help the needy.”
f. Sohan said to his neighbour, “Let us clean the back yard of our houses.”
g. Pyare Lal said, “Alas! I am ruined.”

Answers :
a. Gita told mother that she wanted to take rest.
b. The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun. (Universal Truth)
c. Mohan told his friend that he didn’t know the fact.
d. He asked Ravi if he could help him.
e. Mr. Khanna advised his son to help the needy.
f. Sohan suggested his neighbour that they should clean the backyard of their houses.
g. Pyare Lal exclaimed with grief saying that he was ruined.

Exercise 2
Santa : Why are you crying?
Banta : My hen has died. I poured boiling water in its mouth.
Santa : but why?
Banta : I thought, this way it will give boiled eggs.

Santa asked Banta why  a. ___________________________. Banta replied that b. __________________________ and added that c. ____________________ When Santa wanted to know the reason, Banta told him that he had thought that                       d. _________________.

Answers :
a. he was crying.
b. his hen had died
c. he had poured boiling water in its mouth.
d. it would give boiled eggs that way.

Exercise 3
Renu : Why do you look so sad?
Tanuj : Some one has stolen my wallet’
Renu : Where did you keep your wallet?
Tanuj : In the back pocket of my trousers.

Renu asked Tanuj why  a. _______________________ ____. Tanuj replied her
b. ______________________.  Renu again asked him c. ____________ __ _________. To this Tanuj replied that d. ___________________________.

Answers :
a. he looked so sad.
b. some one has stolen his wallet.
c. where he had kept his wallet.
d. he had kept his wallet in the back pocket of his trousers.

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