Sunday, 23 February 2020

Conjunctions and their usage

Conjunctions or Connectors
     Conjunctions join two or more words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

*   They are also known as Connectors or Linkers.

Kinds of Connectors :

I. Coordinating Connectors  

They join two or more simple sentences to make a compound sentence.  
They are of four types :

1. Cumulative Connectors  ( adding an information, similar fact ) – and, also, as well as, not only – but also

Rakesh and his friends went to watch a movie, today.
He won a prize for debate competition as well as scored 91% marks in class.

2. Adversative Connectors ( joining two contrasting facts/traits/conditions) – but, still, only, whereas, while, yet

She tried her best but could not win the competition.
Reena makes mistakes whereas her brother’s performance is flawless.
I have watched the play several times still I enjoy it.

3. Alternative Connectors ( adding two different options/ ) – or, either – or, neither – nor,  else, otherwise

Will you renovate the house or sell it off?
You may either stay here peacefully or get lost.
Complete your work otherwise you will be punished.

4. Illative Connectors ( adding a reason /relation /explanation / consequence ) – so, therefore, for, hence, that’s why

I was sick therefore I could not attend the meeting.
He is poor so he cannot afford this gift.
Pramod did not complete his work for he was sick.

II. Subordinating Connectors

They join two or more clauses to make one Complex Sentence. Following are the types of Subordinating Connectors :

a. Connectors of Place ( where, wherever)

I don't know where Sameer lives.
People will follow him wherever he goes.

b. Connectors of Time (when, Before, After, Since, till, until)

My grandfather had died before I was born.
He was sorry after he had done it.
We shall stay here till you return.
I have been living here since I was a child.

c. Connectors of reason (Because, Since, As, Why)

I believe it since you say so.
We should not smoke as it is injurious to health.
Rakesh did not attend the class because he was unwell.

d. Connectors of condition (If, Unless, provided)

Work hard if you wish to succeed in life.
He cannot achieve his goal unless he is focussed.
He may win the race provided he improves his speed.

e. Connectors of Comparison (Than, so-as, as-as)

Tom runs slower than Jerry (does)
Harish is not so smart as his younger brother.
She is as intelligent as her mother.

f. Connectors of Purpose (So that, that, lest)

You must work that you may live.
We must practise hard so that we may win.
He held my hand lest I should fall.

g. Connectors of Manner (How)

I could not notice how she broke the watch.
You would never know how he reached here.

 h. Connectors of Concession (Although, Though, yet)

Though Alok is poor, yet he is honest.
Although it was dark, I could see his face.

Exercises :

a. _____ He has done this ________ his brother.
b. You are taller ______ he.
c. I cannot give you any money ________ I have none.
d. Sneha is intelligent __________ she is beautiful.
e. You have to work hard _______ you want to achieve your goal.
f. Mr. Verma is busy these days ______________ he is not seen in gatherings.
g. I came back home ________ had my lunch.
h. I finished first __________ I started late.
i. Keep quiet ______ leave my office.
j. Don’t try to tell lie ________  I know truth.

Answers :
a. Either – or       b. than        c. since                d. as well as         e. if  
f. that’s why        g. and         h. though             i. or                      j. as

Saturday, 8 February 2020

Passive Voice

 Voice (Verb)

Active Voice
           Doer (subject) is given more importance.
*    Subject is placed in the beginning.

Sentence structure
Subject + helping verb + appropriate form of main verb + object
e.g. I have visited Agra.

Passive Voice
      Action is given more importance.
*    Object is placed in the beginning.

Sentence structure
Object + helping verb (if required) + appropriate form of ‘be’ + V3 + by + subject
e.g. Agra has been visited by me.

Forms of ‘Be’

( I form)
( II form)
Past Perfect
( III form)
Present Participle
(ing form)
am ( I )
is (singular)
are (you & plural)

Present Tense
Active Voice
Passive Voice
V1 (First form of verb)
Is / am / are + V3 (third form of verb)
My mother cooks delicious food.
Delicious food is cooked by my mother.
Is/am/are + V1 + ing
Is/am/are + being + V3
They are playing Football.
Football is being played by them.
Has/have + V3
Has/have + been + V3
I have completed my work.
Work has been completed by me.
Present Perfect

Doesn’t apply

Past Tense

Active Voice
Passive Voice
V2 (second form of verb)
was / were + V3 (third form of verb)
I read this book last month.
This book was read by me last month.
was/were + V1 + ing
was//were + being + V3
The students were making noise.
Noise was being made by the students.
Had + V3
Had + been + V3
They had performed the play.
The play had been performed
Past Perfect
Doesn’t apply (voice does not change)

Future Tense
Active Voice
Passive Voice
Will / shall + V1
Will/shall + be + V3 (third form of verb)
I will not harm the insects.
The insects will not be harmed by me.
Future Continuous
Doesn’t apply (voice doesn’t change)
Will/shall + have + V3
Will/shall + have + been + V3
They shall have taken the train.
The train shall have been taken by them.
Future Perfect
Doesn’t apply (voice does not change)

Certain Points to remember :

1. Sentences in Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous and Future Perfect Continuous Tenses can’t be converted into Passive Voice.
2. Intransitive verbs can’t be changed in passive voice as they don’t take an object after them.
3. Imperative sentences are changed in a different way as they don't have subjects and begin with verb and their subjects are understood as ‘you’.

Passive voice in Imperative Sentence

A - Bring a cup of coffee for me. (order)
P - You are ordered to bring a cup of coffee for me.

A - Switch off the fan. (asking)
P - Let the fan be switched off.

A - Listen to me, please. (request)
P - You are requested to listen to me.

A - Work hard for assured success. (advice)
P - You are advised to work hard for assured success.

Passive with two objects

A - Sneha gave me a pen. (pen is direct object and answer of ‘what’)
P - A pen was given to me by Sneha. (direct object is placed in the beginning)

A - My father gifted me a watch.
P - A watch was gifted me by my father.

More Examples :

A - Pratap catches a big fish.
P - A big fish is caught by Pratap.

A - Help the needy
P - The needy should be helped.

A - Open the door.
P - Let the door be opened. (by you)

A - Who will cook the food, today?
P - By whom will the food be cooked, today?

A - The children laughed at the mad man.
P - The mad man was laughed at by the children.

Exercise 1

Change the voice of the following sentence.

a. I will help you.
b. My pocket has been picked.
c. People speak English all over the world.
d. He was appointed as monitor.
e. The light has been put out.
f. They gave the children sweets.

Answers :

a. You will be helped by me.
b. Someone has picked my pocket.
c. English is spoken by the people all over the world.
d. They appointed him as monitor.
e. Someone has put out the light.
f. Sweets were given to the children by them.

Exercise 2

Read the following instructions and complete the paragraph that follows.

First of all, take a pan.
Pour a cup of water into the pan and let it boil for a minute.
Add a teaspoon full of tea leaves in the boiling water.
Add sugar according to taste.
After another minute, strain the tea into a cup.
Add little milk and serve hot.

First of all, a pan is taken. A cup of water a. ______________  into the pan and let it be boiled for a minute. A teaspoon of tea leaves b. _____________ into the boiling water. Then, sugar c. _______________  taste. After another minute, the tea d. _____________  into the cup. Lastly, little milk e. ______________  hot.

Answers :

a. is poured
b. is added
c. is added according to
d. is strained
e. is added and served

Wednesday, 5 February 2020

Reported Speech

Direct – Indirect Narration ( Reported Speech )

Direct Narration – a dialogue between two people face to face
e.g. Mohan says to Radha, “I have completed my work.”

Indirect Narration – the same dialogue reported to the third person.
e.g. Mohan tells Radha that he had completed his work.

Change in Pronoun

1. First person of pronoun ( I, we ) in reported speech changes according to subject of reporting verb.
2.  Second person of pronoun ( you, your ) in reported speech changes according to object of reporting verb.
3. Third person of pronoun ( he, she, it, they ) in reported speech does not change.



Change in Tense

Present tenses
Past tenses
Past tenses
Past perfect tense
Past perfect
Past perfect

Note : Tense does not change in the sentence that conveys universal truth or the facts.

Change in adverb
That day
That night
Next day
Previous day

Other Changes
Replied in affirmative
Replied in negative

Note : Reporting verb and inverted commas  change according to types of sentences.

Changing various types of sentences

1. Assertive sentence

Reporting verbs  – said, told

For example –
The teacher said, “Today, I am going to teach you Probability.”
The teacher said that she was going to teach them probability that day.
Ram said, “Brother, I am in trouble.”
Ram told his brother that he was in trouble.

2. Interrogative Sentence

Reporting verbs  – asked, enquired, interrogated

For example –
Father said, “Son, why are you crying?”
Father asked son why he was crying.
Sohail said to his friend, “Are you going for movie, today?”
Sohail asked his friend if he was going for movie that day.
Father said, “Ravi, why are you not studying for your examinations?”
Father asked Ravi why he was not studying for his examinations.

3. Imperative sentence

Reporting verbs – ordered, commanded, requested, urged, asked, pleaded, forbade, advised, suggested, apologised, scolded

For example –
Mr. Verma  said to peon, “Bring me the file of Glorious Constructions.”
Mr. Verma ordered peon to bring him the file of Glorious Constructions.
Mr. Kalra said, “Suresh, bring a nice cup of coffee for me, please.”
Mr. Kalra requested Suresh to bring a nice cup of coffee for him.
The Teacher said, “Students, work hard for assured success.”
The teacher advised the students to work hard for assured success.
Rohan said to the teacher, “Sorry sir, please forgive me.”
Rohan apologised the teacher respectfully and urged to forgive him.

4. Exclamatory Sentence

Reporting verbs – exclaimed with sorrow, grief, joy, happiness, anger, surprise, awe, wonder, pride, horror, anguish, etc.

For example ---
The coach exclaimed, “Bravo! my boys, you have done a splendid job.”
The coach exclaimed with joy saying that his boys had done a splendid job.
The visitor exclaimed, “What a lovely painting it is.”
The visitor exclaimed with admiration saying that that was a lovely painting.

Exercise 1
a. Gita said, “Mother, I want to take rest.”
b. The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
c. Mohan said to his friend, “I don’t know the fact.”
d. He said, “Ravi, will you help me?”
e. Mr. Khanna said to his son, “Help the needy.”
f. Sohan said to his neighbour, “Let us clean the back yard of our houses.”
g. Pyare Lal said, “Alas! I am ruined.”

Answers :
a. Gita told mother that she wanted to take rest.
b. The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun. (Universal Truth)
c. Mohan told his friend that he didn’t know the fact.
d. He asked Ravi if he could help him.
e. Mr. Khanna advised his son to help the needy.
f. Sohan suggested his neighbour that they should clean the backyard of their houses.
g. Pyare Lal exclaimed with grief saying that he was ruined.

Exercise 2
Santa : Why are you crying?
Banta : My hen has died. I poured boiling water in its mouth.
Santa : but why?
Banta : I thought, this way it will give boiled eggs.

Santa asked Banta why  a. ___________________________. Banta replied that b. __________________________ and added that c. ____________________ When Santa wanted to know the reason, Banta told him that he had thought that                       d. _________________.

Answers :
a. he was crying.
b. his hen had died
c. he had poured boiling water in its mouth.
d. it would give boiled eggs that way.

Exercise 3
Renu : Why do you look so sad?
Tanuj : Some one has stolen my wallet’
Renu : Where did you keep your wallet?
Tanuj : In the back pocket of my trousers.

Renu asked Tanuj why  a. _______________________ ____. Tanuj replied her
b. ______________________.  Renu again asked him c. ____________ __ _________. To this Tanuj replied that d. ___________________________.

Answers :
a. he looked so sad.
b. some one has stolen his wallet.
c. where he had kept his wallet.
d. he had kept his wallet in the back pocket of his trousers.